Political Ideologies in The World

What is an Ideology?

A certain set of ethical ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of a social movement, institution, class or large group that explains how society should work and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order

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The Conservatism

  1. Modern Conservatism
    Concerns for tradition and religion which focuses on equal rights for all people. Modern Conservatism is a mixture of Adam Smith’s ideas of free market and Classic Conservatism of Edmund Burke. For example, Thatcher’s Government in the UK.
  2. Classic Conservatism
    Smith’s economic ideology of a free market was best economic system, but he strongly objected to the way liberal ideas were applied as “liberalism turned into radicalism” (Edmund Burke). Therefore, society should have commitment to traditional values and ideas.
  3. Neo-Conservatism
    A variant of political philosophy of conservatism that combines features of traditional conservatism with political individualism and a qualified endorsement of free markets.

The Liberalisms

  1. Classic Liberalism
    Society should be as free as possible from government interference because Adam Smith argued that government interferences slows growth and economy is best operated through the act of market forces
  2. Libertarianism
    A collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle. Libertarians seek to maximise political freedom and autonomy, emphasising freedom of choice, voluntary association and individual judgement.
  3. Modern Liberalism
    Classic Liberalism expelled government from the marketplace, but Modern liberalism brought the government back in to protect people from an unfair economic system

The Extreme Left

  1. Anarchism
    An anti-authoritarian political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary, cooperative institutions and the rejection of hierarchies those societies view as unjust.
  2. Marxist-Socialism
    A political and economic theory of social organisation which advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole. “Capitalism would be overthrown by the proletariat and the society would move progressively to socialism,” Karl Marx.
  3. Communism
    A political theory advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.

The Extreme Right

  1. Fascism
    An extreme, right-wing, anti-democratic nationalist movement which leads to totalitarian forms of government. The political regime often idealises the past and accepts economic inequality
  2. Neo-Fascism
    A post-World War II ideology that includes significant elements of fascism. This includes populism, navitism, authoritarianism, ultranationism, radical supremacy, and opposed immigration, liberal democracy, marxism, and parliamentarism.
  3. Nazism
    A form of fascism and showed that ideology’s disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but also incorporated fervent scientific racism, antisemitism, anti-communism, and eugenics into its creed.

Other Ideologies

  1. Social Democracy
    A political, social, and economic ideology that supports economic and social-interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and a socialist economy
  2. Nationalism
    A political, social, and economic ideology and movement characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation’s sovereignty (self-governance) over its homeland.
  3. Monarchism
    The advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule. A monarchist is an individual who supports this form of government, independent of any specific monarch; one who espouses a particular monarch is a royalist. Conversely, the opposition to monarchical rule is sometimes referred to as a republicanism.
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Take the test: www.politicalcompass.org

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